Direct Pedaling, piano pedaling, Preliminary Pedaling, Syncopated pedaling

Piano Teachers and Pedaling

In the cosmos of pedaling, where the “soul of the piano” is explored, I asked a few teachers about when and how they introduce students to the use of the sustaining or damper pedal.

Definition of Terms: https://www.pianocub.com/blog/3-piano-pedal-techniques-you-need-to-know

Legato/Syncopated Pedal

“In legato pedaling, the sustain pedal is pressed down after a note or chord has been played but before it has been released. It’s called legato pedaling because the pedal is used as a way to connect notes together and create the illusion of smooth playing. This technique is also called syncopated pedaling.”

The Direct Pedal

“In the direct pedal, the sustain pedal is depressed at the same moment the keys are struck. This is useful for accenting a sharp attack or giving a big chord some extra resonance.”

The Preliminary Pedal

“The pedal is pressed down before the first notes of a piece or section. This allows the piano to be at its most resonant when the keys are struck and creates a full, deep, and beautiful sound.”

***

Irina Morozova

I introduce pedal when students are ready. Usually it doesn’t happen until the second or even third year (with kids). I give them simple exercises for direct and late (syncopated) pedal and explain the difference. Pedaling is an extremely difficult subject to write about: It’s too complicated and subtle. But when students are ready to pedal, I expect them to do it perfectly so we work very hard on it, using more and more complex pedal tricks.

Rami Bar-Niv

I introduce pedaling when we get to repertoire that requires it and when the student can reach the pedal comfortably. I don’t use pedal extenders for small kids. I prefer that the student is first well-grounded in playing without the pedal.

When I teach the use of the pedal, I start with syncopated pedaling as “default” and later move on to various pedal techniques and uses as they are deemed necessary and required by the music.

I never mention the concept that pedal is used for legato playing even though it can help with legato at times. I view the pedal as enhancement and enrichment of the sound and as an aid in phrasing. The use of the pedal depends not only on the music that’s being played but also on the piano it’s being played on and the room it’s being played in.

***

Seymour Bernstein presents his views on pedaling with compelling demonstrations of actual exercises he enlists in the early years of study, continuing with a more complex mentoring/development of pedal techniques as students advance.

In vimeo format, Bernstein explains and demonstrates the history of the right pedal.

Seymour’s Introduction

We learn two startling facts: 1) Hairpins, (cresc. and decresc. markings), beginning with Beethoven, mean tempo fluctuations, and 2) In my opinion, the asterisks, following Chopin’s pedal indications, mean nothing at all. Along the way, I reveal important information concerning interpretation, all coupled with PowerPoint slides which show the points under discussion. It’s a must for all teachers and serious pianists.

***

In his book, The Art of Piano Fingering, Rami Bar-Niv explores finger pedaling as a technique applied to the same measures of Chopin’s Ballade No. 1 in G minor (LH) that Bernstein referenced in his video trailer. Bar-Niv, then further probes the same work.

Bar-Niv: The tool of finger pedaling can be very helpful when playing without using the sustain pedal or when pedaling needs to be cleared if some extra resonance and overtones are still desired. It can also be very effective when we wish to bring out some extra-hidden voices/melodies in the music.

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Kirsten: From my teaching perspective, the world of pedaling is filled with complexity. Mentoring students about how to use the pedal as an enhancement of musical lines, fleshing out colors and nuances the pianoforte affords, is an incremental journey. Attentive listening should be at its center, supported by technical and physical approaches that best realize what is an imagined sound image. The process of assimilating various dimensions of pedaling may take years of exposure to varied repertoire. And what might work for a Chopin composition in sound imagery terms, will not necessarily carry over to a Debussy Prelude. It’s our job as teachers to help sort through the varied tonal and atonal vocabularies of composers as we explore their works. By experimenting with pedaling options and exchanging ideas back and forth with our pupils, we foster mutual musical growth.
***

Links:

Irina Morozova
https://www.newschool.edu/mannes/faculty-az/?id=4e6a-4932-4d77-3d3d

Rami Bar-Niv
Author The Art of Piano Fingering
https://www.amazon.com/dp/1479285277/ref=cm_sw_su_dp

https://www.youtube.com/user/barniv

Rami’s Rhapsody Piano Camp for Adults of all piano-playing levels in San Francisco, April 22-28, 2018.
http://rami.ybarniv.com/?page_id=198

Seymour Bernstein
http://seymourbernstein.com

piano blog by Shirley Kirsten, piano blogger, piano blogging

Jeanne Bamberger, 94, shares a rich and abundant musical life

A former student of legendary pianist, Artur Schnabel, Jeanne Shapiro Bamberger sat comfortably at her piano bench, nestled in her Berkeley Hills home. She meticulously traced her East to West Coast journey that’s reached beyond the boundaries of piano performance. Through decades of creative discovery, Bamberger has synthesized elements of music and cognition; form, structure, analysis, with an understanding of how we react/respond to music. Her work has had a far-reaching effect. Four of her titles are read and respected across an audience of many disciplines, while her popular U.C. Berkeley course, “Music Cognition” draws interest/attendance from diverse academic, scientific and musical communities.

Adding to a prolific output of university-based activities, she’s created a software program that’s allied to the website Tuneblocks.com. It has integrated a community of musicians and technology mavens, some of whom sit in Bamberger’s classroom. Their posted mission “is to build computer-based and hands-on products that will help you develop your creative intuitions while having fun with music.”

http://www.tuneblocks.com/whoarewe.jsp

Bamberger’s list of well-reviewed books include:
The Mind behind the Musical Ear (Harvard University Press, 1995), Developing Musical Intuitions: A Project-based Introduction to Making and Understanding Music (Oxford University Press, 2000), Discovering the Musical Mind: A view of Creativity as Learning (Oxford University Press, 2013) and The Art of Listening.

Of no surprise, Jeanne Bamberger has been regaled as “one of the seminal figures in the fields of music cognition and child development.” (Bio: UC Berkeley, Music Department-http://music.berkeley.edu/people/jeanne-bamberger/)

In our videotaped conversation, Jeanne revealed her inquisitive mind that, in part, sprang from her deep immersion in Philosophy study at the University of Minnesota. Nevertheless, her interest in music, embedded early in life, never waned. Her status as a child prodigy led her to teachers, some of whom embraced the approach of Jacques Dalcroze.

Joanna Graudan, a Russian mentor, who had, herself, studied with Schnabel in Berlin, sent Jeanne to her very own teacher. It forged a lineage that continued through shrinking degrees of separation, to the Contemporary music cosmos at U.C. Berkeley where Roger Sessions became an influential figure in Bamberger’s musical development. (Earlier in her musical journey, Jeanne had studied with Ernst Krenek at Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota.)

Of particular interest, however, is Jeanne’s recorded memories of lessons with Artur Schnabel that were based in New York City during the 1950’s. In the company of Leon Fleisher, Claude Frank among other notables in fields of performance and musicology, Bamberger provided what is historically significant and of relevance to musicians, students, and educators around the world.

(Note Jeanne Bamberger’s re-labeling of her opening musical excerpt. It’s a Schubert Dance, Op. Posth. 171, #4 in D Major.)

***
LINK: Schnabel Music Foundation
http://www.schnabelmusicfoundation.com/

executing trills, Shirley Kirsten, Shirley Kirsten blog

Navigating Tricky Trills

Experimentation is central to piano learning in all its phases, including that which applies to the build-up of trills. Unfortunately, for many students engaged in such a learning process, rapid alternations of notes will often ignite instant panic and fear which tighten muscles, inhibiting a smooth flowing musical line. In some instances, the initial approach a pupil undertakes in practicing trills becomes marred by poor fingering choices and a precipitous push to play these figures at a “fast” pace too soon.

In my own experience practicing trills over decades–a journey that’s been introspective, experimental, and open to new and creative fingering assignments, I’ve had epiphanies that have grown my technique while filtering down to my pupils in productive increments.

Currently, I’m preparing the Enrique Granados Oriental (Danza Espanola No. 2, Op. 5) that one of my students plans to study. In this particular undertaking, I’ve been laying the groundwork for smoothly rendering a tricky set of three trills for the Right Hand–each with a different resolution that presents a technical and musical challenge.

All 3 trills, however, share a sustained alto note under them, with quick grace note driven resolutions requiring not only fingering that is “natural” to the hand/fingers, (different for each player) but can propel an uninterrupted shimmering beauty to resolution. When I sampled the editor’s recommended 3, 5, 3, 5 etc. trill fingering, I could not nearly realize a fluid progression of notes to my satisfaction. And with a subsequent realization that R.H. trill fingers 2, 3, 2, 3, etc. were my most reliable ones, I immediately tried these as I attempted the first unfolding figure in the Spanish Dance. (This trill springs into an awkward resolution divided by an octave bundled into a Major Third) Unfortunately, my choice resulted in an immediate surge of strain and tension that sparked an experimentation most likely considered unorthodox. Still, I persisted with a “creative” exploration that ultimately produced desired fluency.

In the video tutorial posted below, the final fingering that became a springboard for further development of each trill, relied on right hand fingers 2, 4, 2, 4, etc. in conjunction with a hanging hand, energized by relaxed arms and supple wrists. I even added a “sigh” to my trill executions to bundle them in warmth and lucidity. (The breath is so intrinsic to a fluid trill outpouring that’s imbued with a singing tone) Trills, are essentially fast melody, vocally modeled.

Fundamentally, the build-up of each trill in the Granados Oriental was based on a sighing back tempo approach that flowed gradually into the tempo desired, using fingering that not only worked for me, but well served the music.

(P.S. The footage encompasses fingering decisions for each trill sample that naturally considered the grace notes and how to navigate all three trill settings to full resolution.)

Oriental Play through:

adult piano lessons, adult piano students, piano teaching, piano teaching repertoire, Romantic era piano repertoire, Romantic era repertoire, Romantic music, Schumann, setting a good piano fingering

A deep immersion in Schumann’s Wiegenliedchen, Cradle Song No. 6, Op. 124

Who would have thought that a Romantic era character piece of short length could have so much to savor on multi-tiered levels? Relentless triplets with double stemmed quarters, seemed at first glance to direct the player toward a horizontal rendering of a conspicuous melodic thread that’s reinforced by the highest notes in the Right Hand. It’s clearly a vocal line that requires a singing tone wedded to a seamless legato.

But the more one delves into the score, an awareness of note groupings, within phrases, requires the player to breathe as a vocalist would, with an attendant understanding of how fingering, harmonic analysis, rotational motions, and exploration of the bass line all factor into a deeper rendering of the composition.

While the piece only landed in Berkeley just two short days ago, having been emailed in attachment form from a Scottish Isle, it was “cradled” with great care upon its arrival in the Berkeley flats–having passed through an embryonic stage of discovery to a more heightened level of understanding.

Since a tutorial is like a diary of epiphanies, the one I’ve included below, is a springboard to further learning discoveries that grow from repeated exposures and more intense scrutiny of what the composer, Robert Schumann, intended.

piano lesson, piano lessons, piano lessons in Berkeley California, piano lessons on the web, piano pedagogy, piano practicing, piano teachers, piano teaching

Our individual musical study grows our piano teaching

For the past year I’ve devoted many daily hours to the study J.S. Bach’s six French Suites while simultaneously keeping pace with my students’ passage through diverse repertoire. The decision to take on this additional musical challenge apart from meeting my basic teacher obligations of being present at lessons; knowing the material assigned, and dispensing meaningful suggestions, is to advance my own personal musical development. By growing my technique and musicianship; organizing music with a theoretical lens; getting deeply embedded in form, harmony, phrasing, and noting the very steps taken in my early learning process, I grow my teaching to the benefit of my students. This message I gladly send along to colleagues who enjoy comparable journeys of self-discovery.

A few weeks ago, I received a pertinent message via You Tube from an adult learner in Israel who was challenged by the Allemande of the B minor French Suite No. 3, BWV 814 and wondered if I’d a posted a tutorial about ways to approach the opening dance movement. Although I had studied the Sarabande, Anglaise, and Minuet/Trio of this work, I hadn’t yet commenced an examination of the Allemande. Her request, therefore, was perfectly timed to nudge my practicing of this movement with an enlisted analytical approach–breaking down the “subject” or main germ cell, and discovering any and all fragments of the smallest idea that unraveled in two-voice counterpoint (and inversion) through the binary form. (Fingering naturally factored into foundational practicing along with the preservation of a “singing” tone.)

The video that I uploaded just three days into my exploration, contained the basic elements of structure/counterpoint that fed the musical/expressive side of interpretation and spawned an early play through that reaped the benefits of my self-driven pedagogical analysis.

Tutorial:

Play Through

I continue to make challenges like these for myself, not just through deep explorations of Johann Sebastian’s Bach’s music in its many forms (Fugues, Gigues, Allemandes, Courantes, etc.) but by stretching the mind in expansive directions: studying repertoire from various historical periods; exploring harmonic flow, rhythm, and theoretical framings that are in the service of how to phrase and imbue emotion governed by what is expected and unexpected in the course of a composition.

Finally, this investment in individual study is not only a promotion of self-growth, but it becomes a gift to our pupils to whom we are teaching the very rudiments of learning so they will become truly independent in their own study as it matures, and ripens over time.

piano lessons, piano lessons by web cam, piano lessons by webcam, piano lessons in Berkeley California, piano lessons on Facetime, piano lessons on the web, piano mentoring, piano repertoire, piano teaching, Romantic era music, Romantic era phrasing, Romantic era piano music, Romantic era piano repertoire

The value of studying short Romantic era Character pieces

Piano teachers often welcome the opportunity to use student repertoire requests as a springboard to nourish new learning adventures. Such pupil-driven musical endeavors can lead to deep-layered immersions in short, Romantically framed character pieces.

The value of dipping into miniature variety compositions encompasses taking on a learning challenge in compact form. For example, Schumann’s Album for the Young Op. 68 has a repository of picturesque musical samples that have dual artistic and pedagogical merit bundled into a page or two. The same economy of space/expression applies to Tchaikovsky’s Children’s Pieces Op. 39. Burgmuller, Dvorak, and Shostakovich, join many other composers in this genre, who have produced anthologies of program music in attenuated form.

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In both the Schumann and Tchaikovsky collections, colorful titles inspire the imagination while requiring a satisfying fusion of affective, kinesthetic, and cognitive approaches to learning. The process of absorption is still layered and developmental but it must be focused on a mood-set that is promptly captured and sustained. (Contrasts in middle sections must include a shift in affect, and an alteration of tonal expression within a short musical space.)

Schumann’s “The Reaper’s Song,” Op. 68 no. 19, is a pertinent reflection of piano study that requires an in depth examination of “voicing” despite its brevity. This particular learning dimension includes an awareness of how an opening thematic melodic line in 6/8, (duple compound meter) meanders from the “Soprano” range into the “Alto,” while the bass line provides an important fundamental underpinning. One might consider the interweaving of voices as reflective of Romantic era “counterpoint.”

In addition, there’s a syncopated rhythmic dimension that evokes the machine-like mechanism of the reaper that appears initially in the bass, but fans out to the upper voice.

Finally, any and all key changes, though ephemeral, must be noted and assessed for emotional/expressive impact.

In summary, this particular musical undertaking via “The Reaper” requires an attendant balance of all voices as they interact and move along with the enlistment of an expressive “singing tone.” (Arms must be relaxed, while wrists are supple in order to realize vocal modeled expression)

A “counter-melody” springs up, (though not readily apparent), that if fleshed out, will relieve thematic repetition and provide more nuanced artistic expression/phrasing. Rubato and dynamic variation also become integrated components in this learning venture, while an embracing rhythmic flow in TWO is musical wrapping.

As contrast to the opening fabric of voices that supports a singable, meandering theme, Schumann inserts an Interlude of rolled out UNISON triple-grouped 8th notes in Forte that smoothly transition back to the initial theme. Repetition of this particular mid-section with a doubled VOICE octave spread between the hands affords an opportunity to nuance it differently, perhaps with a less intense dynamic upon the second playing.

At the piece’s conclusion, the composer charmingly adds a Coda of lighthearted staccato chords in choir where the soprano remains, without doubt, the lead voice. A parallel harmonic third to fifth to sixth sequence in this addendum hearkens Schumann’s signature “hunting horn” motif, though I’m not convinced that the REAPER, relentlessly harvesting crops would have stumbled into this particular milieu. (but who knows?)

Other samples of short character pieces that require in depth probing of voicing/phrasing/dynamics etc. include these two gems that I’ve recently learned.

Robert Schumann

“A Little Romance,” Album for the Young, Op. 68
(This miniature requires playing after beat chords as harmonically rich supports, but not intruding upon an impassioned melodic line. Once again, “voicing and balance” considerations are pivotal to playing this piece expressively.)

***

Antonin Dvorak

“Grandpa Dances with Grandma” (No. 2–Two Little Pearls)

Lots of thematic repetition requires expressive and dynamic variation. In a relentless 3/8 meter frame, a player must resist the temptation to sound mechanical and metronomic. A contrasting middle section that’s homophonic and in a modulating KEY, demands a shift in mood, needing prompt awareness and attention to tone/touch shifts. A Voicing dimension expectedly permeates the entire tableau.

piano lesson dropouts, piano lesson termination, piano lessons

Attitude and Adult Piano Study

What is under-emphasized in discussions about satisfying piano study, is the role of a student’s attitude toward lessons, practicing, and progress.

Particularly within the realm of adult music learning, an individual’s decision to return to a structured instructional environment after a weighty absence from childhood lessons will often attach a set of negative associations:

1) Previous piano-learning experiences were colored by authoritarian parents who enforced excessively strict practicing routines while they embraced unattainable standards of “perfection.”

2) A former teacher might have been emotionally abusive leaving a student with feelings of insecurity and self-doubt. (“Mistakes” were fleshed out as “failures.” Creative interpretations, improvising, and any inclination to express opinions about playing a piece were received with a crushing blow of harsh criticism.)

For retired adult pupils who had inhabited a tense work environment, an unconscious “competitive” carry-over into lessons can adversely affect preparation and performance. (The corporate world, in particular, is known for its focus on SUCCESS measured by PROFIT and promotional advancement. Its built-in deadlines, time capsules, and dollar-driven goals are in glaring opposition to a creative, non-judgmental music-learning process)

Among employed adult piano students, some will face pressures managing work and family obligations that limit their practice time and intrude upon lesson scheduling. These impediments increase frustration and self-reproach to the point that some piano learners quit before they’ve become fully immersed in their studies.

Above and beyond issues enumerated that interfere with a fulfilling course of study, the most formidable barrier to a gratifying musical experience relates to ATTITUDE.

In my view, a crushing wall of SELF-JUDGMENT and PROJECTION are the biggest inhibitors of progress and attendant satisfaction in the piano-learning environment.

Examples

Pupil to Teacher:

“I don’t know how many times you’ve told me about voice parceling in the J.S. Bach Allemande, and I still can’t seem to get it right.”

The student is COUNTING how many times the mentor has suggested changes that will flesh out the beauty of the work. The TEACHER is NOT counting reminders and is not grading the student who is governed by absolutes of RIGHT AND WRONG. (It’s a case of distortion with embedded projection of what the student believes is going on in the teacher’s head.)

In fact, the mentor is determined to work with the score, the composer’s intention, and what can improve musical expression given the period of composition. She emphasizes this approach, assuring her pupil that repeated reminders are not tallied on a scorecard. (In truth, the student, alone, is acting as a self-appointed scorekeeper and referee, issuing self-imposed penalties that create a cyclical set of last ditch efforts.)

***
A resonating chant:

“I keep hitting the wrong keys so let me try again.”

The student resists relaxing as the teacher suggests numerous strategies that encompass breathing techniques, mental images and cues, with demonstrations of supple wrist, weight transfer, and unimpeded flow of energy down the arms. (“Hitting” notes, even if not to be taken literally, is discouraged.)

The pupil tries again, makes another mistake, tenses up in response, lunges repetitively at the keys and finally gives up.

The teacher assesses the situation, framing her suggestions in an objective way. These are dispensed without a hint of invective or biting criticism. Nevertheless, the pupil has decided she just can’t seem to “get it RIGHT,” and ends the lesson on a note of pessimism.

Students who have self-defeating attitudes for whatever reason, are difficult to work with because they lack trust in themselves and the teacher.

Finally, for a musical journey to be satisfying for the adult pupil and mentor, both must embrace an attitude of love for the learning PROCESS without the attachment of deadlines or tallied measurements of success. Each partner must individually work on advancing a relationship to the piano that integrates patience, self-nurturance and acceptance on behalf of musical growth and development.

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Related:
https://arioso7.wordpress.com/2017/07/12/trading-places-with-our-piano-students/